Pooran Mohsenzadeh, Ali Ardekani, Hossein Poustchi, Zahra Mohammadi, Seyed Reza Abdipour Mehrian, Hamed Bazrafshan Drissi, Zahra Rahimian, Erfan Taherifard, Ali Nabavizadeh, Alireza kamalipour, Bita Mesgarpour, Fatemeh Malekzadeh & Hossein Molavi Vardanjani
Background: While the traditional risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) have been well-established, the evolving role of nontraditional risk factors is not apparent. This study aimed to evaluate the association between nontraditional risk factors and the calculated 10-year ASCVD risk in a general population.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the Pars Cohort Study data. All inhabitants of the Valashahr district in southern Iran, aged 40–75 years, were invited (2012-2014). Patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were excluded. The demographic and lifestyle data were collected using a validated questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the calculated 10-year ASCVD risk and the nontraditional risk factors of CVD, including marital status, ethnicity, educational level, tobacco and opiate consumption, physical inactivity, and psychiatric disorders.
Results: Of 9264 participants (mean age =52.2±9.0 y; 45.8% male), 7152 patients met the inclusion criteria. In total, 20.2%, 7.6%, 36.3%, 56.4%, and 46.2% of the population were cigarette smokers, opiate consumers, tobacco consumers, ethnically Fars, and illiterate, respectively. The prevalence rates of low, borderline, and intermediate-to-high 10-year ASCVD risks were 74.3%, 9.8%, and 16.2%, respectively. In multinomial regression, anxiety (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.58; P<0.001) was significantly associated with a lower ASCVD risk, whereas opiate consumption (aOR, 2.94; P<0.001) and illiteracy (aOR, 2.48; P<0.001) were significantly associated with a higher ASCVD risk.
Conclusion: Nontraditional risk factors are associated with the 10-year ASCVD risk and, thus, might be considered besides traditional ones for ASCVD in preventive medicine and health policies.