Association between Age at Menarche and Metabolic Syndrome in Southwest Iran: A Population-Based Case-Control Study
Background: Age at menarche affects women’s health outcomes and could be a risk factor for some diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). We assessed the association between age at menarche and MetS components in women aged 35-70 in Hoveyzeh, southwest Iran.
Study design: A case-control study.
Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 5830 women aged 35-70 years in the Hoveyzeh cohort study (HCS), a part of the PERSIAN cohort study, from 2016-2018. The case group included women with MetS, while the controls were women without MetS. The MetS is determined based on standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Data from demographic, socioeconomic, and reproductive history were gathered face-to-face through trained interviews. Moreover, laboratory, anthropometrics, and blood pressure measurements were assayed for participants. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the association between age at menarche and MetS, with adjustment for potential confounding variables.
Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.60 ± 1.76 years old. Urban and rural women differed in age at menarche (12.58 ± 1.71 and 12.63 ± 1.83 years, respectively). The study revealed a statistically significant relationship between MetS and menarche age. The odds of developing MetS were 14% higher in women with menstrual age ≤ 11 years than in other groups.
Conclusion: As evidenced by the results of this study, the odds of having MetS were higher in women whose menarche age was ≤ 11 years. Furthermore, the association between MetS components and age groups at menarche was statistically significant.
Keywords: Case-control study; Iran menarche; Metabolic syndrome.
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Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) programme: study protocol and design of musculoskeletal system and cognitive function (stage II)
Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorders and cognitive diseases are prevalent, and they are significant determinants of morbidity and mortality in older adults. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal and cognitive diseases and their risk factors and also to assess their associations during future follow-ups.
Methods and analysis: Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) programme is a population-based prospective cohort study being conducted in Bushehr, a southern province of Iran. A total of 3000 older people aged ≥60 years participated in the first stage from which 2772 were eligible to participate in the second stage, which started after 2.5 years. Data including demographic status, lifestyle factors, general healthandmedical history, and mentalandfunctional health are collected through a questionnaire. Anthropometric measures, performance testsandmuscle strength, blood pressure and and body composition measurements are done. A total 25 cc venous blood is taken, and sera are stored at -80°C for possible future analyses.
Ethics and dissemination: The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Science as well as the Research Ethics Committee of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. A written informed consent was signed by all the participants. The study findings will show the prevalence of musculoskeletal disease, cognitive impairment and their risk factors in an elderly population. The participants will be followed during the study to measure the occurrence outcomes.This study will also have the potential to inform the development of beneficial interventions to improve the management of musculoskeletal and cognitive impairment in Iran and other countries in the Middle East.Our findings will be disseminated via scientific publication as well as presentation to stakeholders, including the patients, clinicians, the public and policymakers, via appropriate avenues.
Keywords: cognitive function; elderly; musculoskeletal system; protocol.