Azadeh Saber,1 Ahmad Naghibzadeh Tahami,2 Hamid Najafipour,3 Jalal Azmandian4,*
Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
1Assistant Professor of Nephrology, Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacoloy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran
2MSc in Epidemiology, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran
3Professor of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran
4Associate Professor of Nephrology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a prevalent, progressive, and treatable disease. However, lack of enough data about its prevalence in Iran is amajor obstacle for its early detection. In order to determine the prevalence of the disease in the country, it is necessary to conduct epidemiologic studies especially on populations with ethnic diversity; hence, this study aimed at determining the prevalence of CKD and its predisposing factors in an adult population aged 15 to 75 years old in Kerman city.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 988 adults aged 15 to 75 years in Kerman city, during year 2010. We collected data on the status of hypertension (HTN) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in all participants. Moreover, height, weight, and blood pressure of all participants were measured and a blood sample was taken for laboratory tests. In addition, a morning urine sample was taken to detect microalbuminuria and measure protein, and creatinine. Patients’ glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formula, and the stage of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) was determined.
Results: Of all the participants, 58% were female and the mean age (SD) of participants was 45± 16 years. Considering participants’ body mass index (BMI), 37% were overweight and 18% were obese. The prevalence of HTN and DM were 20% and 14%, respectively.
Mean GFR (SD) was 67 ± 20 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Overall, 91% of the participants were affected by some degree of CKD (stage 1:5%; stage 2: 55.1%; stage 3: 30.5%; stage 4: 0.4%). Prevalence of CKD that was defined through GFR < 60 cc/min was 30.9%. The CKD stage was significantly higher in females, people over 50 years old, overweight or obese individuals, and participants with hypercholesterolemia, high LDL or HTN (P < 0.05). However, CKD stage had no significant relationship with triglyceride level, HDL level, or DM (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: The findings of the present study showed that 91% of the adult population living in Kerman city was affected by some degrees of CKD and more than one-third were at stages 3 or 4. Prevalence of CKD that was defined through GFR < 60 cc/min was 30.9%. Since early detection of CKD could help adopt preventivemeasures and interventions, and prevent disease progression, policy makers must pay special attention to preventive programs, such as programs for life style modification, and design treatment plans for different risk factors, such as HTN, DM, and dyslipidemia.
Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease, CKD, Prevalence, Risk Factors
No.24, Aarabi St, Yaman St, Velenjak, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Postal Code: 1985717413, P.O Box: 19395-4763