Hamid Najafipour • Hamid Reza Nasri • Mahdi Afshari • Mansoor Moazenzadeh •
Mostafa Shokoohi • Afsaneh Foroud • Koorosh Etemad • Behnam Sadeghi •
Ali Mirzazadeh


Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

H. Najafipour  M. Shokoohi  A. Mirzazadeh
Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology,
Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
H. R. Nasri (&)  M. Moazenzadeh  A. Foroud
Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology
and Department of Cardiology, Afzalipour Medical Faculty,
Shafa Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Shafa
Street, Kerman, Iran
M. Afshari  B. Sadeghi
Research Center for Modeling in Health, Kerman University
of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
K. Etemad
Center for Non-Communicable Diseases, Deputy of Health,
Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
A. Mirzazadeh
Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California,
San Francisco, CA, US


Objectives Hypertension (HTN) is an important cause of
cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality. This study
aimed at providing the prevalence of pre-HTN, diagnosed
and undiagnosed HTN, along with its control and associated factors in an adult population.
Methods 5,900 participants aged 15–75 years took part in
the study. HTN was verified by examination, self-reported
history or using anti-hypertensive drug(s). Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined as 120–139/
80–89 mmHg and [140/[90 mmHg for systolic/diastolic
BP, respectively.
Results The prevalence of hypertension was 18.4 % from
which 10.5 %were diagnosed and 7.9 % were undiagnosed. The prevalence of pre-HTN was 35.5 %. HTN
increased by age (2.4 % in 15–24 to 49 % in 55–64 years).
The men had higher pre-HTN (42.7 vs. 28.1 %) and
undiagnosed HTN (11.3 vs. 4.6 %). Of those diagnosed,
56.3 % had uncontrolled BP levels. Smoking, anxiety,
obesity, and positive family history of HTN were the most
significant predictors for HTN.
Conclusions Hypertension affected almost one-fifth of the
population. Given the poor control in diagnosed hypertensive patients, it is alarming that the current health system in
urban areas in Iran is not effective enough to control the
epidemic spread of non-communicable diseases.
Keywords Hypertension  Pre-hypertension 
Undiagnosed hypertension  Uncontrolled hypertension 
Risk factors  Iran