Distribution of corneal thickness and its determinants in 6-12-year-old children in an Iranian general population
1Noor Research Center for Ophthalmic Epidemiology, Noor Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
2Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Noor Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
4Ophthalmic Epidemiology Research Center, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.
5Department of Optometry, School of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
6Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Purpose: To determine the central corneal thickness (CCT), apex, and paracentral thicknesses and their determinants in children aged 6-12 years.
Methods: The present study was part of the phase 1 of Shahroud School Children Eye Cohort Study in 2015. Cluster sampling was done in urban areas while all children were invited to participate in the study in rural areas. The Pentacam HR was used for measurements. CCT was measured within the central 3 mm zone of the cornea, and corneal thickness 3 mm further from the center was considered paracentral thickness.
Results: Of 6624 students who were selected, 5620 (84.8%) participated in the study. Among 4956 students, studied in this report, 52.2% were boys, and the mean age of the study participants was 9.75 ± 1.71 years (6-12). The mean CCT and apical thickness was 556.29 ± 34.04 and 557.43 ± 34.03 μm, respectively. The mean paracentral thickness was 657.62 ± 39.11 μm in the superior, 632.65 ± 37.63 μm in the inferior, 648.64 ± 38.75 μm in the nasal, and 617.36 ± 37.19 μm in the temporal region. A multiple regression model showed that CCT decreased by 4.70 μm with every 1 diopter increase in the mean keratometry and increased by 20.06 μm with every 1 mm increase in the anterior chamber depth (ACD) (Both P-Value < 0.001). Age, sex, ethnicity and residence place were also found to be associated with CCT.
Conclusions: This study is the first to describe the distribution of corneal thickness in Iranian children with a large sample size. This study showed that corneal thickness was significantly correlated with younger age, female gender, urban residence, and a number of biometric variables.
Keywords: Central corneal thickness; Children; Cornea; General population; Iran.