Cardiovascular risk factors in an Iranian urban population: Tehran lipid and glucose study (phase 1)
Objectives: Coronary artery disease is becoming more prevalent in developing countries, particularly in urban areas. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Tehran urban population.
Methods: The prevalence and distribution of high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, dyslipoproteinemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity was determined in 15,005 subjects, aged three years and over, selected by cluster random sampling in Tehran urban district-13 between February 1999 to August 2001. Total energy intake, percent of energy derived from protein, carbohydrate, and fat were assessed in a subsidiary of 1,474 persons by means of two 24-hour dietary recalls.
Results: In adults, 78% of men and 80% of women presented at least one CVD risk factor. The percentage of adult women with two or more risk factors was significantly greater than the one for men. Prevalence of DM, hypertension, obesity, high TC, low HDL, high TGs, and smoking was 9.8, 20.4, 14.4, 19.3, 32, 5.3, and 22.3%, respectively. In children and adolescents, two or more CVD risk factors were found in 9% of boys and 7% of girls. Prevalence of hypertension, obesity, high TC, low HDL, and high TGs, was 12.7, 5.2, 5.1, 10.2, and 5%, respectively. The mean percentage values of energy intake derived from carbohydrate, protein, and fat were 57.8 +/- 6.9, 11.1 +/- 1.8, and 30.9 +/- 7.2, respectively.
Conclusion: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Tehran urban population is high; particularly of high total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol levels, and high waist to hip ratio. An effective strategy for life style modification is a cornerstone of a population approach to the cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, these results will serve as a baseline for assessment of future trends in the risk factors studied.