Hamid Najafipour1, Mohammad Masoomi2, Armita Shahesmaeili3, Ali Akbar Haghdoost4,Mahdi Afshari5, Hamid Reza Nasri2, Masoomeh Kahnooji2, Sadra Samadi6, Ali Mirzazadeh1,7
Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
1Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran,
2Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran,
3Regional knowledge Hub, and WHO collaborating centre for HIV surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran,
4 Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Health School, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran,
5Department of Community Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran,
6General Physician, Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran,
7Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
Background: Opium abuse as a relatively common behavior among Iranian population may
have an association with the other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. Here, we reported
the prevalence of opium abuse and its co-exposures with oral health and other CAD risk factors.
Methods: We recruited 5900 inhabitant aged 15-75 years using a randomized cluster household
survey. All were interviewed for level of physical activity (PA), depression, anxiety and opium
use and assessed for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and oral health status. Regarding
to opium abuse, participants were grouped into: “Non-,” “occasional,” and “dependent” users.
Using logistic regression model for every CAD risk factor, we assessed whether the co-exposure
of opium and CAD risk factor is significant.
Results: Overall, 10.6% reported ever opium use including 5.6% dependent and 5% occasional
users. The prevalence of opium abuse was increased from 2.1% in 15-25 years to 24.5% in 55-64
years group. Opium abuse, in occasional and dependent forms, was associated with depression
(adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.81 and 2.49) and low PS (AOR 1.43 and 1.71 respectively).
Dependents were less obese than nonusers (P < 0.01). Opium abuse had no significant association
with hypertension, diabetes, oral health status and lipid profile.
Conclusions: Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was
observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium
with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other
important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.
Keywords: Coronary artery disease, opium addiction, prevalence, risk factors
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