Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

Principal Investigator:Hamid Najafipour

-Professor of Cardiovascular Physiology
-Kerman University of Medical Sciences
-Director, Physiology Research Center

October 2009

10 Nov 2009

Assesment of prevalence and incidense of 9 CAD risk factors and mortality rates among 15 to 80 years old people living in Kerman

10,000 people aged between 15 to 80 from households that reside in Kerman and live in the city for at least 1 year ago

One-stage cluster sampling household survey based on city postal codes- Recalling 5900 people that participated in Phase I and inviting for new cases up to sample size of 10,000

Using a structured questionnaire including demographic information (education, job ,,,), cigarette and opium smoking, physical activity, nutrition habits, anxiety, depression. blood pressure measurement and dose of medicines in use and medical history, Oral and dental hygiene, assessed by general physician and dental doctors. Also, determining FBS, Chol, HDL, LDL and TG, and HbA1c for diabetic patients. Storing blood serum/DNA in -80c.

One-year active tracking of subjects by telephone contact to record the incident of cardiovascular events or mortality.

5-year active tracking of subjects participated in phases 1 and 2 by telephone contact and inviting them to repeat the measurements.

Nine CAD risk factors of: 1-Diabetes, 2-Hypertension, 3- Hyperlipidemia, 4-Cigarette smoking and opium use, 5- Overweight and obesity, 6- Level of physical activity,7- Depression and anxiety, 8-Nutrition status, 9- Oral and dental hygiene

1-Prevalence and 5-year incidence of the above 9 risk factors, plus incidence of MI

2-Determination of reasons for hospitalization

3-All cause mortality rate

4-Specific cardiovascular mortality rate


The KERman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors (KERCADRS) is a relatively large population-based cohort study performed on the population aged 15 to 75 years living in Kerman by Physiology Research Center of Kerman University of Medical Sciences(KPRC).

The first phase of this study was performed on 5900 individuals that began in September 2009 and ended in December 2011. The aim of the cohort was to evaluate the prevalence, incidence and trend of 9 risk factors for coronary artery disease including: hypertension, diabetes, overweight and obesity, hyperlipidemia, sedentary lifestyle, mental health, smoking and addiction, nutrition status, and oral health status. From the results of the first phase of the study, 44 articles were published. In the second phase of the study, which started 5 years after the first phase we the recalled the participants of first phase and invitated new participants to reach a sample size of 10,000, started in October 2014 and ended in September 2018.

Outcomes studied in this phase include: instantaneous prevalence and 5-year incidence rate of 9 risk factors mentioned, the incidence of heart attack and stroke, the causes of hospitalization, the raw and specific death rate associated with cardiovascular diseases. A large number of clinical faculty members in various specialties such as cardiology, endocrinology and metabolism, psychiatry, dentistry, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and internal organs along with faculty members of Physiology and Biochemistry collaborated with KPRC. The third phase of this project has started in December 2019 with the recall of 10,000 participants of the second phase.



از یکشنبه 16 شهریور 1399، فاز سوم کوهورت قلبی عروقی کرمان که به دليل شیوع بیماری کرونا از اسفندماه 1398 تعطیل شده بود؛ مجددا با رعایت پروتکلهای بهداشتی آغاز بکار کرد.


Published papers from second round of cohort of:

“Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study (KERCADRS)”

Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

  1. Najafipour H, Sabahi A, khoramipour kayvan, Shojaei Shahrokhabad M, Banivaheb G, Shadkam M, Mirzazadeh A. Prevalence, Incidence and Health Impacts of Sleep Disorders on Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors: Results of a Community-Based Cohort Study (KERCADRS). Iran J Psychiatry. 2022;17(3):247-256.
  1. Mahmoodi MR, Najafipour H (2022) Association of C-peptide and lipoprotein(a) as two predictors with cardiometabolic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes in KERCADR population-based study. PLoS ONE 17(5): e0268927
  1. Mahmoodi MR, Najafipour H. Associations between serum vitamin D3, atherogenic indices of plasma and cardiometabolic biomarkers among patients with diabetes in the KERCADR study. BMC Endocr Disord. 2022 May 12;22(1):126.
  1. Jangipour Afshar P, Najafipour H, Shadkam Farokhi M, Shahesmaeili A. How Much Excess Body Weight, Blood Pressure, Triglyceride, or Age Can Double the Likelihood of Diabetes Type 2?. Iran J Public Health. 2022;51(4):939-945.
  1. Najafipour H, Masoumi M, Amirzadeh R, Rostamzadeh F, Foad R, Shadkam Farrokhi M. Trends in the Prevalence and Incidence of Opium Abuse and its Association with Coronary Artery Risk Factors in Adult Population in Iran: Findings from Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study. Iran J Med Sci. doi: 10.30476/IJMS.2021.89898.2065.
  1. Najafipour H, Farjami M, Sanjari M, Amirzadeh R, Shadkam Farokhi M and Mirzazadeh A (2021) Prevalence and Incidence Rate of Diabetes, Pre-diabetes, Uncontrolled Diabetes, and Their Predictors in the Adult Population in Southeastern Iran: Findings From KERCADR Study. Front. Public Health 9:611652.
  1. Najafipour H, Abdollahi F, Khatibi M, Amirzadeh R. Dietary status with demographic and anthropometric variables and some health affecting risk factors in people of Southeastern Iran: A population-based study (KERCADRS). Caspian J Intern Med 2021; 12(4): 551-561.
  1. Yazdi F, Baghaei MH, Baniasad A, Naghibzadeh-Tahami A, Najafipour H, Gozashti MH. Investigating the relationship between serum uric acid to high-density lipoprotein ratio and metabolic syndrome. Endocrinol Diab Metab. 2021;00:e311.
  1. Yeganeh-Hajahmadi, M., Najafipour, H., Rostamzadeh, F. et al. Klotho and SIRT1 changes from pre-diabetes to diabetes and pre-hypertension to hypertension. Diabetol Metab Syndr 13, 115 (2021)
  1. Najafipour H, Yousefzadeh G, Baneshi MR, Ahmadi Gohari M, Shahouzehi B, Farokhi MS, et al. Prevalence and 5‑year incidence rate of dyslipidemia and its association with other coronary artery disease risk factors in Iran: Results of the Kerman coronary artery disease risk factors study (Phase 2). J Res Med Sci 2021;26:99.
  1. Najafipour H; Bagheri M; Saberi S; Farokhi M; Amirzadeh R; Mirzazadeh A. Epidemiological update on prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity in adults in the south-east of the Islamic Republic of Iran: findings from the Kerman Coronary Artery Diseases Risk FActors Study (KERCADRS). East Mediterr Health J. 2021;27(9):874-883.
  1. Enhesari A, Khatami M, Gozashti M H, Safi Z, Khatami M. A study on the relationship between serum uric acid and the thickness of intima-mediated carotid. J Adv Pharm Educ Res. 2021;11(3):83- 7
  1. Najafipour H, Sadeghi M, Kordestani Z, Naghibzadeh Tahamy A, Ghavipisheh M, Shadkam Farokhi M. The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain Syndrome in 15-80 years old Population of Kerman: The Role of Smart Phone Use and its Related Factors. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences 2021; 28(4): 358-366
  1. Nekouei AH, Kakooei S, Najafipour H, Kakoei S. Oral Health Determinants among Opium Users in Kerman, Iran. Addict Health 2021; 13(3): ?-?.
  1. Najafipour H, Shahrokhabadi MS, Banivaheb G, et al. Trends in the prevalence and incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Iran: findings from KERCADRS. Fam Med Com Health 2021;9:e000937.
  1. Kakoei Sh, Nekouei AH, Kakooei S, Najafipour H. The effect of demographic characteristics on the relationship between smoking and dry mouth in Iran: a cross-sectional, case-control study. Epidemiol Health 2021:1-6.
  1. Daneshpajooh A, Naghibzadeh‐Tahami A, Najafipour H, Mirzaei M. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence among Iranian women. Neurourology and Urodynamics. 2021;1–11.
  1. Najafipour, H., Nasri, H.R., Rostamzadeh, F. et al. Prevalence and incidence of pre-hypertension and hypertension (awareness/control) in Iran: findings from Kerman coronary artery diseases risk factors study 2 (KERCADRS). J Hum Hypertens (2020).
  1. Najafipour H, Kahnooji M, Baneshi MR, Yeganeh M, Ahmadi Gohari M, Shadkam Farokhi M, Mirzazadeh A.The Prevalence and 5-Year Incidence Rate of Low Physical Activity in 10,000 Urban Population in South East of Iran: Relationship With Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 2020;17(4):435-442.
  1. Asadikaram G, Ram M,Izadi A, et al. The study of the serum level of IL‐4,TGF‐β, IFN‐γ, and IL‐6 in overweight patients with and without diabetes mellitus and hypertension.J Cell Biochem. 2018;1‐11.
  1. Asadikaram G, Akbari H, Safi Z, Shadkam M, Khaksari M, Shahrokhi N, Najafipour H, Sanjari M, Arababadi MK. Downregulation of IL-22 can be considered as a risk factor for onset of type 2 diabetes. J Cell Biochem 2018 Jun;119(11).
  1. Najafipour H, Sadeghigoghari M, Kordestani Z, Naghibzadeh Tahami A, Ghavipisheh M. et al. Prevalence of the Musculoskeletal Pain Syndrome and Its Associated Factors in People Between 15 and 80 Years in Kerman: A Population-based Study on 1700 Individuals, Iran Red Crescent Med J 2017;19(4):e45084. 

Published papers from first round of cohort of:

“Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study (KERCADRS)”

  1. Mohammadi TM, Sabouri A, Sabouri S, Najafipour H. Anxiety, depression, and oral health: A population-based study in Southeast of Iran. Dent Res J 2019;16:139-44.
  1. Gholamhossenian A, Shahouzehi B, Shokoohi M, Najafipour H. B12 and Folate Concentrations in Opium Addicts Compared to Healthy Subjects: A Case Control Study from Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Study. Addict Health 2018; 10(3).
  1. Rezapour M, Shahesmaeili A, Hossinzadeh A, Zahedi R, Najafipour H, Gozashti MH. Comparison of lipid ratios to identify metabolic syndrome.Arch Iran Med. 2018;21(12):572–577.
  1. Najafipour H, Afshari M, Rostamzadeh F. Prevalence of Multiple Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors in Kerman: A Population-Based Study in Southeast Iran. Iran J Med Sci. 2018 ;43(2):140-149.
  1. Mahmoodi M.R ,Najafipour H ,Mohsenpour M.A , Amiri M. The relationship between food insecurity with cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome components in patients with diabetes: A population‑based study from Kerman coronary artery disease risk study. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2017; 31(22):118
  1. Mohammadi TM, Hasheminejad N, Salari HR, Rostamizadeh MR, Najafipour H. Association between tooth loss and opium addiction: Results of a community-based study on 5900 adult individuals in South East of Iran in 2015. J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent 2017;7:186-90.
  1. Saber A  , Naghibzadeh Tahami A ,Najafipour  H, Azmandian Assessment of Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Predisposing Factors in Kerman City. Nephrourol Mon 2017; 9(2):e41794.
  1. Mojgan Sanjari, Zohreh Safi, Khatereh Mohammadi Tahroodi .HYPERTHYROIDISM AND HYPERPROLACTINEMIA: IS THERE ANY ASSOCIATION?. Endocrine Practice 2016;22(12):1377-1382.
  1. Najafipour H, Moazenzadeh M, Afshari M, Nasri HR, Khaksari M,  Forood A, Sheikzadeh K, Mirzazadeh A. Prevalence of  Low Physical Activity and its relationship with Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors: a Community-based Study (KERCADRS). Asian ARYA Atheroscler 2016;12(5):212-219.
  1. Najafipour H, Beik Ahmad. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms(A Review).Front Physiol 2016;7:436.
  1. Najafipour H, Shokohi M,Yousefzadeh G, SarvarAzimzadeh B, MoshtaghiKashanian G, Bagheri MM, Mirzazadeh A. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with other coronary artery disease risk factors among urban population in Southeast of Iran: results of the Kerman coronary artery disease risk factors study (KERCADRS).J Diabetes& Metabolic disorders 2016;15:49.
  1. Najafipour H, Askaripour M, Hosseinzadeh A, Sadeghi Z. The Prevalence of Coronary Artery Diseases Risk Factors in Four Regions of Kerman City. JKUMS 2016;23(4):406-420. [Article in Persian]
  1. Najafipour H, Banivaheb G, Sabahi A, Naderi N,Nasirian M, Mirzazade A. Prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and their relationship with other coronary artery disease risk factors: A population-basedstudy on 5900 residents in Southeast Iran.Asian Journal of psychiatry 2016;20(2016):55–60.
  1. Foroozanfar Z, Ebrahimi H, Khanjani N, Bahrampour A, Najafipour H . Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Diabetic Patients with and without Metabolic Syndrome. J Endoc Diabetes Mellitus 2016;4(1).
  1. Yousefzadeh G, Gozashti MH, Najafipour H, GholamhosseinianNajar A, Bahramnejad A, Shokouhi M. Common autoimmune biomarkers, thyroid hormonal abnormalities, and beta cells dysfunction in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults with type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetes&Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research&Reviews 10S (2016);S52–S55.
  1. Salimzadeh H, Najafipour H, Mirzaiepour F, Navadeh S, Shadkam-Farrokhi M, Mirzazadeh A. Prevalence of Active and Passive Smoking among Adult Population: Findings of a Population-Based Survey in Kerman,Iran (KERCADRS). Addict Health 2016;8(1).
  1. Najafipour H, Yousefzadeh Gh, Forood A, Karamouzian M, Shadkam M, Mirzazadeh A. Overweight and obesity prevalence and its predictors in a general population: A community-based study in Kerman, Iran (Kerman coronary artery diseases risk factors studies). ARYA Atheroscler 2016;12(1):18-27.
  1. Najafipour H, YeganehHajahmadi M, Nasri HR, Sadeghi Z. Effect of opium addiction and six other risk factors on hypertension: a population-based study in 5900 adults in Kerman. Iran JPP 2015;1(4):156-165.[in Persian].
  1. Masoomi M, Azdaki N, Shahouzehi B. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Concentration in Opium-Addicted Individuals. Addict Health 2015;7(3-4).
  1. Safavi F, Yousefzadeh G, Shokoohi M, Safavi S, Najafipour H, ShadkamFarokhi M.Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Periodontal Disease. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences 2015;22(3):229-239.[in Persian].
  1. Najafipour H, Sabahi A, Mirrashidi F, Afshari M, Haghdoost AA. Sleep Status and its relationship with other Coronary Artery Diseases Risk Factors: Findings of a Community-based Study in South East of Iran. Journal of sleep disorders and therapy 2015;4(3):6 pages.
  1. Foroozanfar Z, Najafipour H, Khanjani N, Bahrampour A, Ebrahimi H. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to different criteria and its associated factors in type 2 diabetic patients in Kerman, Iran.Iran J Med Sciences 2015;40(6):522-525.
  1. Tajadini H, Divsalar K, Mehrabani M, Haghdoost A.A, Esmaeili Z, Shadkam M. The frequency of using herbal medicine among patients with hypertension in Kerman, Iran, 2012-2013. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015; April, pages 1-4.
  1. Najafipour H, Masoomi M, Shahesmaeili A, Haghdoost AA, Afshari M, Nasri H Reza, Kahnooji M, Etemad K, Mirzazadeh A. Effect of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of KERCADRS population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years. Int J Preventive Med 2015;6:42:7 pages.
  1. Yousefzadeh G, Shokoohi M, Najafipour H, Shadkamfarokhi M. Applying Framingham Risk Score for Prediction of Metabolic Syndrome: the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk study (KERCADRS). ARYA Atherosclerosis 2015;11(3):1-7.
  1. Yousefzadeh G, Shokoohi M, Najafipour H, Eslami M, Salehi F. Association between opium use and metabolic syndrome in an urban population in southern Iran: Results of the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factor Study (KERCADRS). Arya Atherosclerosis 2015,11(1):7 pages.
  1. Yousefzadeh G, Shokoohi M, Najafipour H. Inadequate control of diabetes and metabolic indices among diabetic patients: a population based study from the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Study (KERCADRS). International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) 2015;4(5):271-277.
  1. Najafipour H, Sanjari M, Shokoohi M, Haghdoost AA, Afshari M, Shadkam M, Etemad K, Mirzazadeh A. Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus, Pre-Diabetes, Undiagnosed and Uncontrolled Diabetes and Its Predictors in General Population Aged 15 to 75 Years: A Community-based Study (KERCADRS) in Southeastern Iran. J Diabetes 2015 Sep;7(5):613-21.
  1. Gozashti MH, Shafiei M, EsmaeilianS, Najafipour H, MashroutehM. The prevalence of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults and its correlates in patients with type 2 diabetes in Kerman, Iran[2011]. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 2015 Apr-Jun;9(2):104-7.
  1. Yousefzadeh Gh, SheiknAkhavan M. Age and gender differences in the clustering of metabolic syndrome combinations: a prospective cohort research from the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Study (KERCADRS). Diabetes&Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 2015;9(4):367-372.
  1. Aram-Ahmaddi M, Bahrampour A, Najafipour H. Predicting Type Two Diabetes and Determination of Effectiveness of Risk Factors Applying Logistic Regression Model. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences 2014;21(2):103-113. [in Persian].
  1. Rahimi N, Gozashti M.H, Marefati H, Rahnama K, Aghaei I, Moosazadeh M. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients and its Relationship with Opium Consumption. Journal of Guilan University of medical Sciences 2014;22(88):49-57.[in Persian].
  1. Najafipour H, Nasri HR, Afshari M, Moazenzadeh M, Shokoohi M, Forood A, Koorosh E, Sadeghi B, Mirzazadeh A. Hypertension, Pre-Hypertension, Undiagnosed and Uncontrolled Hypertension and its Predictors in General Population Aged 15 to 75 Years: A Community-based Study in Southeastern Iran. International Journal of Public Health 2014;59(6):999-1009.
  1. Gozashti MH, Fedaei N, Shojaei M, Najafipour H. Determination of most suitable cut off point of waist circumference for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in Kerman.Diabetes& Metabolic Syndrome:Clinical Research&Reviews 2014;8(1):8-12.
  1. Hayatbakhsh M, Zahedi MJ, Darvish-moghaddam S, Seyedmirzaie SM, Najafipour H, Haghdoust AA, Mahmoudi A.The Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and its Clinical Symptoms and Related Factorsamong the Adult Population of Kerman,Iran. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences 2013;20(4):331-342.[in Persian]
  1. Yousefzadeh Gh, Mahdavi-Jafari F, Shokoohi M, Najafipour H, HaghdoostAA, ModaresNejad V. Modulation of coronary artery disease risk factors by menopausal status: A population based study among Iranian women (KERCADRStudy). Arya Atherosclerosis 2013;9(6):332-336.
  1. RahimiN, Gozashti MH, Najafipour H, Shokoohi M, Marefati H. Potential Effect of Opium Consumption on Controlling Diabetes and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients. Addict Health 2013;5(3-4):1-6.
  1. Najafipour H, MalekMohammadi T, Foad Rahim, Haghdoost AA, ShadkamM, Afshari M. Association of oral health as a cardiovascular disease risk factor (CVDRF) with other CVDRFs: Results from a community based study on 5900 adult subjects.ISRN Cardiology 2013June:1-6.
  1. Shahouzehi B, Shokouhi M, Najafipour H. The Effect of opium addiction on serum Levels of Adiponectinand Leptin in male subjects:a case control study from KERCADRS. EXCLI Journal 2013;12:916-923.
  1. Yousefzadeh Gh,Shokoohi M, Yeganeh M, Najafipour H.Role of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome: A prospective cohort research from the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Study (KERCADRS). Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 2012;6:(190–194).
  1. SamarehFekri M, Shokoohi M, Gozashti MH, Esmailian S, Jamshidian N, Shadkam-Farokhi M, Lashkarizadeh MR MalekpourAfshar R. Association between Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody and Asthma in Women.Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2012;11(3): 241- 245.
  1. Foroozanfar Z, Ebrahimi H, Khanjani N, Bahrampour A, Najafipour H. Comparing indices of median nerve among diabetic patients with or without metabolic syndrome. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 2017;11(S2):S669-S673.
  1. Najafipour H, Mirzazadeh A, HaghdoostAA, Shadkam M, Afshari M, et al.Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors in an urban and pri-urban setting (KERCADR Study): Methodology and Preliminary Report. Iran J Public Health 2012;41(9):86-92.