Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic periodontitis is a slow-growing inflammatory disease that often occurs in adults. In the elderly, periodontal indices may also change due to a number of psychological factors, such as depression and consequent changes in cortisol levels. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the relationship between depression and periodontal indices in the elderly in Amirkola, Northern Iran.
METHODS: This case-control study, which is part of the second phase of the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP) to investigate the health status of the elderly in this city, was performed on 300 elderly people. After examination, subjects were divided into two groups: periodontitis (n=100) and control (n=200). In both groups, the presence of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), in which a score of 5 or higher is a sign of depression, and periodontal indices including OHIS and PDI were examined based on PDI≥4 periodontitis criterion. Then, the two groups were compared in terms of the association between periodontal indices and depression.
FINDINGS: In this study, 133 were female (44.3%) and 167 were male (55.7%). 35 patients (35%) in the case group and 61 patients (30.5%) in the control group had symptoms of depression. The mean GDS score in patients with periodontitis (3.70±3.68) was slightly higher than healthy individuals (3.49±3.40), but no significant correlation was observed between GDS and PDI. Old age, male gender, lower level of education and smoking were higher in patients with periodontitis, which was statistically significant only in smoking and level of education (p=0.042 and p=0.009, respectively). In this study, a positive and weak relationship was observed between age and PDI (r=0.19 and p=0.001).
CONCLUSION: The results showed that there is a relationship between periodontal indices and depression. Although it was not statistically significant, it is clinically noteworthy.
|Keywords: Symptoms of Depression, Periodontitis, The Elderly.|