Associated factors and distribution of posterior corneal astigmatism in a middle-aged population
1Translational Ophthalmology Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2Ophthalmic Epidemiology Research Center, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.
3Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Noor Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Clinical relevance: Posterior corneal astigmatism has an important role in diagnosis and treatment of astigmatism, but it is usually overlooked.
Background: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the distribution of posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA) and its associated factors in a middle-aged population that participated in the Shahroud Eye Cohort Study (ShECS) phase II.
Methods: Anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA) and PCA values were measured using rotating Scheimpflug System (Pentacam HR, Oculus). With-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism was considered when the steepest corneal meridian was aligned within 90° ± 30°, and against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism when the steepest meridian was 0 ± 30°. All the remaining values were considered as oblique astigmatism. Logistic regression models were used for evaluating the association of PCA magnitudes with other factors.
Results: The current study consisted of 3871 eyes with available Pentacam data. Mean age of participants was 55.4 ± 6.1 years and 1557 (40.2%) subjects were male. Means of ACA and PCA were 0.77 ± 0.67 and -0.24 ± 0.15 D, respectively. The majority of PCA consisted of WTR astigmatism (82.43%), while ACA mostly showed ATR astigmatism (55.46%). PCA > 0.3 D was associated with male sex (OR = 1.16, P-value = 0.028) and spherical equivalent (OR = 0.93, P-value = 0.011) in the adjusted model, while PCA > 0.5 dioptre was strongly associated with myopia (OR = 4.6, P-value < 0.001). Conclusion: The most common forms of ACA and PCA in middle-aged Iranian adults were ATR and WTR, respectively. While the shape of posterior corneal surface remained mostly unchanged across ages of 45 to 69 years, ACA was associated with a decrease in ATR proportion. Moreover, the most significant factors associated with higher magnitudes of PCA were male sex and myopia.
Keywords: Astigmatism; Iran; cohort study; cornea; elderly.